If anyone wants to add to this, or disagree, please do.
"First, Egypt is undoubtedly an African country, but Africa is a continent and not a race or single culture. Indigenous Africans range from coastal Algerians, who are often resembled by Southern Europeans, to the Khoisan bushmen of the Kalahari desert, to the various ethno-linguistic groups of West Africa, to the Nilotic peoples of Southern Sudan. All these people are related as humans, but their languages and cultures vary greatly, as do their physical appearance. Specifically, with regards to Ancient Egypt, the pre-dynastic civilization is a mixture of people who migrated from E. Africa perhaps 10,000 years ago, as part of the wider Afro-Asiatic diaspora, and others who came from North Africa, with input also from Near Eastern people whose ancestors had migrated out of Africa 10,000-40,000 years ago, and then back-migrated into (North) Africa, which explains why the Berbrer populations of North Africa are distinct visually from sub-Saharan Africans, and also why, Ancient Egyptians are racially ambiguous according to modern racial categories.
Modern racial types are not based on science or genetic research, but are socially constructed categories and vary from place to place, depending on who you are talking to. All humans essentially share the same genetic material and the genes for skin color for instance represent only 5 out of 25,000 genes, or 0.02% of our total genetic heritage. The rest is essentially common to all humans and so "race" is not strongly supported by empirical genetic research.
The ancient Egyptians did not categorize themselves according to skin color or "race", and being chauvanists, like everyone else in the ancient world, they considered themselves superior in every way to the fairer skinned Semites, Southern Europeans and Berbers, and they also considered themselves superior to the Nubians and other peoples of the Sudan and East Africa.
Please take a look at the "Book of Gates", which contains a self-description of how Egyptians conceived of themselves relative to others (Nubians, Semites, and Berbers). The Egytpians obviously considered themselves to be distinct, and so they would certainly not accept modern racial categories.
Lingustically and ethnically, in terms of modern categories, Egyptians are best described as "Afro-Asiatic", since the Acient Egyptian language is distantly related to Hebrew, Phoenecian, Akkadian, Arabic, Amharic (Ethiopian), Cushitic (Somali) and the various Berber dialects of North Africa. It stands to reason that the Ancient Egyptians were most closely related to these peoples, and indeed, modern genetic research reveals that modern Egyptians are most closely related to the people of North Africa, East Africa, and the Middle East. Ancient Egyptians however, were not closely related to West Africans or Central Africans, although again, as humans, we are all essentially related and all our ancestors are descendant from people who lived exclusively in East Africa 100,000-200,000 years ago, and everyone who is not African is descendant from small groups of humans who began leaving Africa about 80,000 years ago at the earliest.
Furthermore, with regards to your question about Arabs and Arabic, the majority of Egyptians have very little Arab "blood", although their language and culture is obviously related to that of the Arab countries. This is the case because Egypt has always had the largest population of any country in the region. During the time of the Arab conquests, which was roughly 1400 years ago, Egypt had an estimated population of 4 million, while the entire Arabian peninsula had a similar population (with Yemen having the largest population of the Arabian peninsula). Hence, it is impossible that the Arabs displaced the Egyptians or added significantly to their genetic heritage. Perhaps 15% of Egyptians have a strong link, in terms of genetic heritage, to the countries of the Near East. But linguistically and culturally, which is what matters in terms of how people self-conceive, Egypt is the beating heart of the Arab world, since 28% of Arabic speakers live in Egypt, and Arabic has no rival in modern Egypt. The only other significant linguistic group are the Nubians, who are only 300,000 out of a population of 80 million (or less than half of one percent), and even the small Nubian community speaks Arabic by virtue of their matriculation in the national system of education. Furthermore, becaus of Egypt, the African contitent contains most of the speakes of the Arabic language, since their are approximately 300 million Arabic speakers, and 80 million of them live in Egypt, 30 million live in Morocco, another 30 million (out of 35 million) live in Algeria, another 10 million live in Tunisia, and then 20 million live in Northern and Eastern Sudan, not to mention 4 million in Libya, and the Arabic speakers in Mauritania and some in Chad, for a grand total of at least 174 million Arabic speakers in Africa (although the actual number of Arabic speakers who live in Africa is probably closer to 190 million out of a total 300 million). So the demographic center of the Arabic language is North Africa and not West Asia, due in large part to the fact that Egypt is in Africa.
Finally, with regards to my profession, I am an academic, but not a geneticist or ancient historian. I am in fact a professor of finance, but in the interest of full disclosure, I also happen to be Egyptian. Ana Masri min al Iskindiriya. (I am Egyptian, from Alexandria)."
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