It is easy to calculate the positions of the sun and the moon at a specific time two tousand years back or forwards in time with modern computer programs.
The fact that the moon was said to be red makes a eclipse impossible because during a eclipse the moon is what's covering the sun and blocking the light making it dark. Thick clouds can effectively block light from the sun too, making it very dark. I'd say this is likely what happened. The moon didn't become red either. The moon doesn't produce any light by itself but reflects light from the sun. Something interfered with that normal white light, only allowing red spectrum of the light to be visible. That can be a lot of materials.
God most likely didn't breake any of His natural laws for those signs to happen. Of course He can but He didn't have to as far as I understand it.